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This page contains a selection of interesting multimedia used as part of presentations or publications. Most of the content is original from the PHL, but other sources are credited.
  • Exoplanet Types Here are infographics summarizing the 'exoplanet zoo' out there. Figure 1 is a simplified version of exoplanet types based on size while Figure 2 uses both size and temperature for ...
    Posted Sep 30, 2013, 12:23 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Map of Nearby Stars with Exoplanets These are high resolution map (8000x4000px) of the night sky showing the stars with exoplanets. Click the images for the high resolution versions. The maps are suitable for poster printing ...
    Posted Jul 17, 2013, 2:13 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • The Habitable Zone This plot shows the extension of the recently redefined Habitable Zone around F, G, K, and M stars. The Warm 'Habitable' Zone is divided into a narrower 'Conservative Habitable Zone ...
    Posted Mar 23, 2013, 9:18 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Tracking Down New Earths Kepler is the NASA's first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets. This big infographic shows some important figures of the mission up to March 2013. Click for a ...
    Posted Mar 20, 2013, 12:29 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Puerto Rico celebra la llegada del 2013 Esta imagen de Puerto Rico combina fotos de NASA Blue Marble y Black Marble para crear una imagen amplificada de la iluminación nocturna en Puerto Rico. Los fuegos artificiales serían ...
    Posted Dec 31, 2012, 5:04 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • The Nearest Stars to Earth This is an excellent infographics of the nearest 53 star systems. Here is a more detailed list of 270 stellar systems within 10 parsecs. CREDIT: Karl Tate, Space.com
    Posted Dec 20, 2012, 3:47 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • X-mas Planets Caption: The 'X-mas Planets' is a collage of computer generated images of potentially habitable worlds created by the Planetary Habitability Laboratory (PHL) over a section of an image of ...
    Posted Aug 26, 2013, 7:55 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • The Apparent Size of Pluto and the Stars Dwarf planet Pluto is so small and far away that it only shows as a featureless dim dot in any ground or space telescope. Only NASA's New Horizon space ...
    Posted Sep 28, 2012, 7:28 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Distant Horizons - Different Surfaces This excellent image compilation by Mike Malaska shows the planetary surfaces of Asteroid Itokawa, the Moon, Venus, Mars, Titan, and Earth. So our technology has been in the surface of ...
    Posted Sep 2, 2012, 6:51 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Sunset of the Habitable Worlds This figure shows an actual image of a sunset on Earth compared to artistic representations for the best candidates of potential habitable worlds so far. The image corrects for the ...
    Posted Jul 2, 2012, 10:18 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Liquid Water in the Solar System Water is not a luxury of Earth, in fact, it is the most abundant compound in the universe because it is composed of the first and third most abundant elements ...
    Posted Jun 28, 2012, 3:02 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • The Real Colors of Venus without the Clouds Here we tried to reproduce the global surface color of Venus as seen by the human eye based on radar imagery from the Magellan spacecraft and surface images by the ...
    Posted Jun 2, 2012, 11:09 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Three Types of Habitable Worlds There are three types of worlds in the universe that might support life. Habitable planets orbit stars from which they could obtain the energy necessary to maintain a surface biosphere ...
    Posted Jun 1, 2012, 4:46 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • What would Earth look like from a satellite million of years ago? Here are simulated views of Earth, minus the clouds, from the position of five main geostationary weather satellites, each over a different longitude (145°E, 057°E, 000°E, 057 ...
    Posted Jun 4, 2012, 8:29 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Future Earth: A grey planet? Earth today is a rich blue ocean world with land and vegetated areas, clearly a habitable planet (Figure 1). The civilization impact on this planet is not evident when we ...
    Posted Jun 4, 2012, 8:30 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Solar System 2.0 (beta) HD 10180 is a star similar to our Sun nearly 130 light years away. It has six confirmed exoplanets, as many as Kepler-11 and the only two known stellar ...
    Posted Jun 4, 2012, 8:33 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Synthetic Views of Earth by SER Here are three different test views of Earth as reproduced by SER in HD Format [1920x1080]. SER tries to reproduce as best as possible the true-colors of Earth, including ...
    Posted Jun 30, 2012, 1:04 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Earth in Physical Colors Human eyes have many limitations. For example, blue tones generally look darker compared to other colors because our eyes are less sensitive to blue light. Here is the latest "Blue ...
    Posted Jun 30, 2012, 1:06 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • The ESI and HZD Exoplanets Habitability Indices These are introduction slides to the Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and the Habitable Zone Distance (HZD), two habitability indices for exoplanets. They are discussed in more detail as part of ...
    Posted Jun 30, 2012, 1:09 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Exoplanets Images These are a series of computer generated test images with the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer (SER). They can be freely used for editorial, academic, or research purposes. Click each picture for ...
    Posted Jan 11, 2013, 2:48 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • A Habitable Exoplanet Classification This is an image summarizing the habitable exoplanet classification with a Star Trek consoles look.
    Posted Jun 30, 2012, 1:29 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • 30 Planets, One Home (updated) This is a version of our 30 Planets, One Home poster without clouds and other atmospheric effects, using an orthographic projection, and in an aspect ratio more suitable for a ...
    Posted Jul 1, 2012, 7:10 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Logarithmic Maps of the Universe This is a nice map of the universe in a logarithmic scale by Gott, Juric et al. starting from the Earth interior up to the edge of the visible universe
    Posted Jul 6, 2011, 8:07 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Timeline of the Last 700 Million Years of Earth This infographic summarizes some of the mayor changes of Earth in the last 700 million years. Earth emerged from a global glaciation with simple microscopic life that rapidly evolved to ...
    Posted Jun 4, 2011, 3:22 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Revised "Pale Blue Dot" Photo On 1990 Voyager 1 took a photo of Earth from a distance of 40.5 astronomical units (AU), at the edge of the Solar System. This famous photo named the ...
    Posted Jul 28, 2012, 1:22 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Dino Tree This tree diagram shows the relationship between the Dinosauria and Archosauria groups. Credit: M.C. Langer et al. Biological Reviews 2010, adapted by T. Dubé; from the original ScienceNews article ...
    Posted May 15, 2011, 2:35 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Geologic Time Scale 2009 Updated Geologic Time Scale 2009 by the Geological Society of America. Description paper here. Click for PDF version.
    Posted May 15, 2011, 2:16 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Geological and Geophysical History of Earth This is an excellent poster by the late Hans J. Hofmann from McGill University presenting many geological and geophysical parameters of Earth history in a vertical timeline, very informative. Click ...
    Posted May 15, 2011, 2:02 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • VPE Mods I will like to keep putting derived works (mods) from the VPE imagery in this media section. You can send your art or link by email to Prof. Abel Méndez ...
    Posted Jul 1, 2012, 5:47 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Seasonal Surface Changes of Earth These are true-color computer animations of the surface changes of Earth during one year based on NASA Visible Earth imagery. The seasonal changes of ice and vegetation are clearly ...
    Posted May 5, 2011, 6:13 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Earth Topography and Bathymetry 65 Million Years Ago Christopher Scotese of the PALEOMAP Project, one of the sources for our Visible Paleo-Earth project, is adding some nice relief 3D topography and bathymetry information to our images, including ...
    Posted Jul 1, 2012, 7:20 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • 30 Planets, One Home These poster are a mosaic of the images from the Visible Paleo-Earth project in true-colors perspective (with atmospheric effects) and simple B&W orthographic  map projections. The side ...
    Posted Jun 6, 2012, 9:22 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Visible Paleo-Earth Mosaics These poster are a mosaic of the images from the Visible Paleo-Earth project in Equirectangular and Hammer map projections, both with a black or white background. They can be ...
    Posted Jun 6, 2012, 9:29 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Evolution of the Iconic Face of our Planet Here is another black and white infographic comparing the paleo-evolution of the iconic global face of Earth. Today, up to 68% of the land masses are in one side ...
    Posted Aug 20, 2011, 11:38 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Evolution of Earth Paleogeography We are working on photorealistic visualizations of Earth from space in the last 750 million years as part of our project the Visible Paleo-Earth. But sometimes nothing compares to ...
    Posted Apr 11, 2011, 2:48 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Time history of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Time history of atmospheric carbon dioxide from 800,000 years before present until January, 2009. Recommend full screen/HD to read titles. Original source and more videos in the CarbonTracker ...
    Posted Dec 31, 2010, 10:19 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Asteroids and comets to scale All asteroids and comets visited by spacecraft as of November 2010. Credits: Montage by Emily Lakdawalla. Ida, Dactyl, Braille, Annefrank, Gaspra, Borrelly: NASA / JPL / Ted Stryk. Steins: ESA / OSIRIS team ...
    Posted Dec 10, 2010, 3:44 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • VPE: Late Cambrian 500Mya Earth during the Cambrian Period was relatively warm and without polar caps. Most of the continents resembled deserts and were clustered in the southern hemisphere. Life was small and simple ...
    Posted Nov 24, 2010, 4:41 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • VPE: Earth Today Earth today is a temperate planet with large forests, deserts, and polar caps. Most of the continental areas are distributed in the northern hemisphere. Life is complex, globally dispersed, and ...
    Posted Nov 24, 2010, 4:43 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Size Comparison of the Gliese 581 Planetary System Gliese 581 is a red dwarf star located 20.3 light years from Earth in the constellation Libra. It has a mass of one third of the Sun and at ...
    Posted Oct 10, 2010, 2:34 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • ESI of Solar and extrasolar planets. Comparison of Earth-likeness of Solar and extrasolar planets with the Earth Similarity Index (ESI). Only Gliese 581g falls in the Earth-like box.
    Posted Nov 21, 2010, 10:35 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Size Comparison of the Gliese 581 Planetary System (original version) Gliese 581 is a red dwarf star located 20.3 light years from Earth in the constellation Libra. It has a mass of one third of the Sun and at ...
    Posted Oct 9, 2010, 8:43 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Habitable Space in the Solar System This image shows a comparison of the potential habitable space available on Earth, Mars, Europa, Titan, and Enceladus. The green spheres represent the global volume with the right physical environment ...
    Posted Jul 1, 2012, 6:15 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Habitable Zones Map This is a global mean Habzones Map of land masses showing the best regions for photosynthetic activity (greener) based on temperature and humidity. Regions were divided for convenience in six ...
    Posted Jul 1, 2012, 6:56 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Past and Present Terrestrial Habitability   We are working on a Planetary Habitability Classification (PHC) based on the calculation of the Standard Planetary Habitability (SPH), which provides a measure of climate habitability for primary producers (the ...
    Posted Jul 1, 2012, 7:05 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • Size and distance comparison of Gliese 581 Planetary System This is size and distance from the star of the Gliese 581 Planetary System. At the top of the image the relative distance of the planets are shown with their ...
    Posted Oct 9, 2010, 7:43 PM by Abel Mendez Torres
  • ESI of Gliese 581 Planetary System The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is a number used to compare exoplanets with Earth as a measure of Earth-likeness in a scale from zero to one (one being exactly ...
    Posted Oct 10, 2010, 2:34 AM by Abel Mendez Torres
Showing posts 1 - 47 of 47. View more »

Exoplanet Types

posted Sep 30, 2013, 11:27 AM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Sep 30, 2013, 12:23 PM ]

Here are infographics summarizing the 'exoplanet zoo' out there. Figure 1 is a simplified version of exoplanet types based on size while Figure 2 uses both size and temperature for classification. These plots were prepared for the 1,000 exoplanet count celebration.


Figure 1. Types of exoplanets according to the PHL's Exoplanet Classification system. The red numbers in each category correspond to those already confirmed (total of 990). Many more are still waiting for confirmation.


Figure 2. Periodic Table of Exoplanets for current 990 confirmed exoplanets (17 planets are not included because there is not enough information to classify them). Explanations and any newer version are available here.

Map of Nearby Stars with Exoplanets

posted Jul 9, 2013, 9:27 PM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Jul 17, 2013, 2:13 AM ]

These are high resolution map (8000x4000px) of the night sky showing the stars with exoplanets. Click the images for the high resolution versions. The maps are suitable for poster printing up to 40" x 20" (~100x50 cm) at 200 dpi. Image credits: PHL @ UPR Arecibo and Jim Cornmell.



Figure 1. Nearest stars with exoplanets within 100 light years from Earth. There are 117 stars with one or more exoplanets within this distance. Stars with known exoplanets are color-coded with their spectral type (see legend). The rest of the stars are black.


Figure 2. All stars with confirmed exoplanets (701 stars with 912 exoplanets). Two notable clusters are the surveys of Kepler in Cygnus-Lyra, and MOE and OGLE in Sagittarius, the galactic centerStars with known exoplanets are color-coded according to their distance from Earth, red closer, violet farther (see legend). Any beyond 1000 light years are colored as dark violet. The rest of the stars are black. Only those stars within 100 light years are labeled. 


Figure 3. Same as figure 2 but with a dark night sky background.

The Habitable Zone

posted Mar 23, 2013, 9:18 PM by Abel Mendez Torres

This plot shows the extension of the recently redefined Habitable Zone around F, G, K, and M stars. The Warm 'Habitable' Zone is divided into a narrower 'Conservative Habitable Zone' (light green) and a wider 'Optimistic Habitable Zone' (dark green). Earth is at the inner edge of the 'Conservative Habitable Zone.' CREDIT: PHL @ UPR Arecibo.

Tracking Down New Earths

posted Mar 20, 2013, 12:26 AM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Mar 20, 2013, 12:29 AM ]

Kepler is the NASA's first mission capable of finding Earth-size planets. This big infographic shows some important figures of the mission up to March 2013. Click for a larger image. Credit: Aliona Voitenko.

Puerto Rico celebra la llegada del 2013

posted Dec 31, 2012, 3:56 PM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Dec 31, 2012, 5:04 PM ]

Esta imagen de Puerto Rico combina fotos de NASA Blue Marble y Black Marble para crear una imagen amplificada de la iluminación nocturna en Puerto Rico. Los fuegos artificiales serían unos puntos a esta escala, pero fueron añadidos y exagerados en tamaño porque así lo celebramos en nuestra isla. ¡Feliz Año 2013!


English Caption: This image of Puerto Rico combines photos from NASA Blue Marble and Black Marble to create an amplified image of the night illumination of Puerto Rico. The fireworks would barely occupy dots at this scale, but were added and exaggerated in size because that is the way we celebrate it in our island. Happy New year 2013!

The Nearest Stars to Earth

posted Dec 20, 2012, 3:47 PM by Abel Mendez Torres

This is an excellent infographics of the nearest 53 star systems. Here is a more detailed list of 270 stellar systems within 10 parsecs. CREDIT: Karl Tate, Space.com


X-mas Planets

posted Dec 8, 2012, 6:01 PM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Aug 26, 2013, 7:55 AM ]


Caption: The 'X-mas Planets' is a collage of computer generated images of potentially habitable worlds created by the Planetary Habitability Laboratory (PHL) over a section of an image of the De Mairan’s Nebula (Messier 43) taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Earth is at the top right, Mars at the top center. This image was created to celebrate the first year, December 5, 2012, of the PHL's Habitable Exoplanets Catalog. The title of the picture was unintentional but after looking at the final product it reminded us of X-mas ornaments. Since this was on December that seemed an appropriate name. The image has been very popular in the web. Here is a high resolution version. Credit: PHL @ UPR Arecibo (phl.upr.edu), ESA/Hubble, NASA.

The Apparent Size of Pluto and the Stars

posted Sep 28, 2012, 7:23 PM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Sep 28, 2012, 7:28 PM ]

Dwarf planet Pluto is so small and far away that it only shows as a featureless dim dot in any ground or space telescope. Only NASA's New Horizon space mission will get close enough to Pluto on July 2015 to observe its surface details. Now consider the stars, many are even larger than the Sun but they are much farther away. Are the apparent size of the stars larger than Pluto? They seem bigger because we can see them with the naked-eye, but in fact the apparent size of most stars are much smaller than Pluto (see figure below). It is their brightness than make them look much larger and fuzzier to our eyes and our telescopes.

If we barely see surface features on Pluto, neither on any exoplanet, which are much smaller and dimmer than their parent stars. Only those few exoplanets bright enough, because they are young and hot, can be directly seem in telescopes as faint points. Most are to dim and out shined that and are only detected because they affect the star light in some subtle ways.


Caption: Best image of the Pluto-Charon system ever taken by a ground observatory. The image was taken by the Gemini North telescope on July 2012 with an average resolution of 20 milliarcseconds (mas). We added for comparison the apparent size of Pluto and Charon (dotted circles) with those of four known stars (not including the star glare which make them look much bigger). The size of Epsilon Eridani is comparable to detecting a 5 meter diameter object on the Moon from Earth, a nearly impossible activity. Exoplanets are much smaller. CREDIT: PHL @ UPR Arecibo, Gemini Observatory/NSF/NASA/AURA

Distant Horizons - Different Surfaces

posted Sep 2, 2012, 6:39 AM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Sep 2, 2012, 6:51 AM ]

Distant Horizons - Different Surfaces (Itokawa / Moon / Venus / Mars / Titan / Earth)

This excellent image compilation by Mike Malaska shows the planetary surfaces of Asteroid Itokawa, the Moon, Venus, Mars, Titan, and Earth. So our technology has been in the surface of five planetary bodies besides Earth. Well, not counting Eros (not originally a lander), Comet Tempel 1 (a 'crasher'), and Jupiter (not a surface to land). Why Earth is shown as an ocean? With a 71% global coverage this is the most common surface type of our planet.

Image Credits: Asteroid Itokawa [Hayabusa]: ISAS / JAXA / Gordan Ugarkovic , Moon [Apollo 17]: NASA, Venus [Venera 14]: IKI / Don Mitchell / Ted Stryk / Mike Malaska, Mars [Mars Exploration Rover Spirit]: NASA / JPL / Cornell / Mike Malaska, Titan [Cassini Huygens]: ESA / NASA / JPL / University of Arizona, Earth: Mike Malaska, Composition by Mike Malaska.

Thanks to Amanda Bauer (@astropixie) for the original link in Astropixie.

Sunset of the Habitable Worlds

posted Jun 29, 2012, 5:52 PM by Abel Mendez Torres   [ updated Jul 2, 2012, 10:18 AM ]

This figure shows an actual image of a sunset on Earth compared to artistic representations for the best candidates of potential habitable worlds so far. The image corrects for the size, colors, and brightness of the star and sky as seen from an Earth-like world located in the orbits of these worlds. The size of and colors of the star of Kepler-22 b look similar to Earth because it orbits a Sun-like star. The sunsets of Gliese 667Cc and 581d look much redder because they orbit a red dwarf star, with the sky of Gliese 581d much darker due to its greater distance. The star of HD 85512b is the brightest of all cases although the star of Gliese 667Cc is the biggest. CREDIT: PHL @ UPR Arecibo

 
Data used in the creation of the previous image:

Star Star Type Apparent Magnitude from Planet Apparent Size from Planet (°)

 Sun

 G

 -26.7

 0.53
 Gliese 667C  M  -26.8  1.39
 Kepler-22  G  -26.6  0.56
 HD 85512  K  -27.4  1.10
 Gliese 581  M  -25.3  1.39

For more information about these worlds check the Habitable Exoplanet Catalog (HEC). This data is also available to construct similar views for any of the confirmed and Kepler exoplanets candidates in the full database of HEC. Individual frames are available under request for editorial and educational purposes only. The image of the beach was taken June 14, 2012 @ 6:45 AM AST in Puerto Rico while relaxing.

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